Slowing or reversing the ageng process has been a hot topic throughout human history. Aging can be defined as a system-wide decline in organismal function. It is governed by multiple processes such as genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These, in turn, can be influenced by many external factors like environment, toxins, radicals, lifestyle and diet. Epigenetics can be described as the software which regulates the expression of gene sequences seen as hardware. This plays an important role in the continuing process of aging.
Telomeres are protective structures at the ends of our chromosomes that get shorter with each cell division. Once the telomeres become critically short, the cell ceases to divide and becomes senescent or undergoes apoptosis and dies off. Inflammation caused by metabolic diseases such as obesity, by immune responses or DNA instability caused by epigenetic dysfunction contributes to mechanisms of premature aging. Increased experience in genetics, epigenetics, and metagenomics has driven healthcare towards individualized health solutions.